The sound of /f/ can be spelled different ways. This is one of the ways that consonants can vary. The sound of /f/ can be spelled many ways indeed, more than three! In the following sentence, how many ways do you see?
The dolphin swam fast in the rough sea by the cliff
(f as in fast, ff as in cliff, ph as in dolphin, and gh as in rough.) The word fall belongs to the special flossy word family -all, where the letter a makes the sound of a short o before double letters -ll. In the word phonics, the ph makes the sound of /f/.
After learning about Consonant Digraphs with short vowels at the end of the SOUND OUT WORDS section (II.c), and about Silent e (III.a), it is time to learn about words that have BOTH! Words like…
CHASE THE SHEEP!
This free set of activities includes a worksheet, a word search, and a word sort. The words can be sorted two ways: by digraphs or by the Bossy R vowel. The CHASE THE SHEEP freebie is available to download at the Super Tutor Tools store at Teachers Pay Teachers. Also available is a free wordlist and set of bookmarks with consonant digraphs and vowel patterns.
C is often hard /k/ before A, O & U. With the others, a soft C /s/ will do.
The words in the word families of -ace and -ice have the soft C sound. C before e will often soft be. These are Silent e words.
G is often hard before A, O & U. With the others, a soft G will often do.
(But this is not always true, which you know if you get a gift given to you!)
Words that end in -ge or -dge have the soft G sound of /j/. G before e will often soft be. Defender d can stop the vowel from being long in some Silent e words.
Sight words with:
Hard c /k/: can, came, car, cut
Soft c /s/: face, place, space, sentence
Hard g: go, got, big, give
Soft g /j/: large, page, change
Keyword sentence: I got a large change when I came to this place.
There are some words with short vowels that have a hard or soft c and g, but many more have advanced vowel patterns. Because of this, hard or soft c and g (IV.b) are introduced after learning about Defender d at the end of the Silent e section in the Phonics Pow Toolkit. (III.a) Download worksheets or the free anchor charts with word lists for hard or soft c and g at the Super Tutor Tools store at Teachers Pay Teachers. The Consonant Variations soccer sort game includes hard or soft c and g, plus the ending sound of /k/.
WATCH videos and PLAY games about hard or soft C and G at the Wakelet tutorial on Consonants that vary.
IGH is a trigraph – one sound is made with three letters. The gh is silent and the i is long. The sound of IGH is included with vowel teams in the Phonics Pow Toolkit, as the other vowels have teams that make the long sound, but i only has the trigraph IGH. Learn more about the vowel trigraphs AIR and EAR at Bossy R variations. WATCH videos on igh from Little Learners and Kids vs. Phonics, and try a long i wordsearch.
ā – ai & ay
ē – ea & ee
ī – igh
ō – oa & ow
ū – ui & ew
Can you identify all the long vowel patterns in the sentences below?
LONG I: The pilot tried to fly kind of high for a mile.
More sentences with long vowel patterns:
LONG A: They say the lady will take the train today at eight.
LONG E: Weeven like these crazy sheep that bleat.
LONG O: Put a coat on to go home in the cold snow.
LONG U: The cool jewel on her blue suit was super huge.
The letter y is tricky indeed. It can make many sounds, more than three!
Yes, y is a consonant in yellow and yolk.
Sometimes y makes a short i sound like in system and gym.
A y at the end can a vowel be, with the sound of a long i or e. How do you know which you see? At the end of one syllable words, y often says “i” like in fly. With more syllables, it is often a long e.
There are some exceptions, like the one syllable word “key” with the long e sound. (Hey! No Way! -ey can sound like a long a in some words like grey, and the vowel team -ay a long a will say.) You can’t deny y is long i in two syllable words like: July, supply, reply, rely, and apply. Some two syllable words go in the long i pile like typist and style.
WATCH videos and PLAY online games about Tricky y at the Vowels That Vary Wakelet tutorial.
After learning about Consonant Digraphs with short vowels at the end of the SOUND OUT WORDS section (II.c), and about Bossy R (III.b), it is time to learn about words that have BOTH! Words like…
I was inspired by Shark Week to put together a free set of activities that includes a worksheet, a word search, and a word sort. The words can be sorted two ways: by digraphs or by the Bossy R vowel. The SHARK CHART freebie is available to download at the Super Tutor Tools store at Teachers Pay Teachers. Also available is a free wordlist and set of bookmarks with consonant digraphs and vowel patterns.
This set of word sort games designed to go along with the Phonics Pow Toolkit is available as a free download. (link below) Word sorts are a tool for teaching reading skills that have been shown to be effective. We’ve got you covered! Print on cardstock, cut out, store in zip-lock bags, and play while learning.
Fill the phonogram card with one word card of each pattern for a quick game (player who fills card first wins), or use all the word cards for a longer game (player with the most word cards wins). Mix skip (the turn is skipped if drawn) and swipe (player can take a word card from the other player) cards in with word cards to add fun. POW!