One of the trickiest things about the English language is that vowels may sometimes look the same and make different sounds.
WATCH videos and PLAY online games to earn more at the vowels that vary tutorial at Wakelet.
Syllables that are closed are usually short, but when you find the gold don’t get lost. The letters i and o followed by two consonants can be both – short or long.
We have met OO/OO, one of the diphthongs. Which might be a foot that is short, or a boot that is too long. More vowels that can vary are OW, EA, IE. The letter Y can be Tricky indeed with the sounds it can make, more than three! (it can say a short i like in gym.)
Y at the end of a one syllable word, often says a long “I” as in fly. Practice Tricky Y with a story and word sort at my Teachers Pay Teachers Store.
AR can sound like ER, as in pillar or dollar. So can OR, when you start your motor. When there is an E before AR all bets are off. It might be ER when you learn, or maybe a long e that you hear. It can even be a polar bear on a chair. Learn more about the Bossy R Schwa sound and other variations.
Last, but not least of all, is the amazing schwa. Any vowel can make this lazy “uh” sound, so watch out for schwas all around!
These guidelines may help you to figure out the many sounds you will discover all about.